##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Alejandro Otero Agustín Pérez Moreno ; Peter Falkingham ; Guillermo Cassini ; Agustín Ruella ; Mariano Militello ; Néstor Toledo

Resumen

Three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning includes techniques of image acquisition and image processing. Among the former, hardware devices (e.g., portable and non- portable scanners, camera) capture images from the target, whereas image processing is conducted via specialized software, in which acquired images are processed to merge them into a single 3D model. Image surface scanning include a wide variety of devices which incorporate different image acquisition techniques, all of them with potential high standards results. We describe different scanning devices and techniques commonly used in Vertebrate Paleontology in order to compare them in terms of pros and cons, considering different variables, such as scanning time, post-processing time, costs and image resolution. The decision on which device to choose will depend on the budget available, the portability as well as the nature of the fossil material being analyzed (e.g., size, weight, accessibility). In the light of this, photogrammetry constitutes the image surface technique which fulfils these requirements, having the best cost-benefit relationship.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Referencias
Bates, K.T, Falkingham, P.L., Hodgetts, J., Farlow, J.O., Breithaupt, B.H., O´Brien, M., Matthews, N., Sellers, W.I. and Manning, L. Digital imaging and public engagement in palaeontology. Geology Today 25: 134–139.

Bates, K.T, Mannion, P.D., Falkingham, P.L., Brusatte, S.L., Hutchinson, J.R., Otero, A., Sellers, W.I., Sullivan, C., Stevens, K. and Allen, V. 2016. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan. Royal Society Open Science 3: 150636.

Bennett, M.R., Falkingham, P.L., Morse, S.A., Bates, K. and Crompton, R.H. 2013. Preserving the Impossible: Conservation of soft-sediment hominin footprint sites and strategies for three-dimensional digital data capture. PLoS ONE 8: e60755.

Brassey, C.A., Maidment, S.C.R. and Barrett, P.M. 2017. Muscle moment arm analyses applied to vertebrate paleontology: a case study using Stegosaurus stenops Marsh, 1887. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 37: e1361432.

Breithaupt, B.H. and Matthews, N.A. 2001. Preserving paleontological resources using photogrammetry and geographic information systems. En: D. Harmon (Ed.), Crossing Boundaries in Park Management. Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and Public Lands, The George Wright Society, Inc.

Breithaupt, B.H, Southwell, E.H., Adams, T. and Matthews, N.A. 2001. Innovative Documentation Methodologies in the Study of the Most Extensive Dinosaur Tracksite in Wyoming. 6th Fossil Research Conference Proceedings: 113–22.

Breithaupt, B.H., Matthews, N. and Noble, T. 2004. An Integrated Approach to Three-Dimensional Data Collection at Dinosaur Tracksites in the Rocky Mountain West. Ichnos 11: 11–26.

Brochu, C.A. 2000. A digitally-rendered endocast for Tyrannosaurus rex. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir 20: 1–6.

Brochu, C.A. 2002. Osteology of Tyrannosaurus rex: insights from a nearly complete skeleton and high-resolution computed tomographic analysis of the skull. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir 7: 1–138.

Carabajal, A.P., Carballido, J.L. and Currie, P.J. 2014. Braincase, neuroanatomy, and neck posture of Amargasaurus cazaui (Sauropoda, Dicraeosauridae) and its implications for understanding head posture in sauropods. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 34: 870–882.

Cassini, G.H. 2013. Skull geometric morphometrics and paleoecology of santacrucian (late early Miocene; Patagonia) native ungulates (Astrapotheria, Litopterna, and Notoungulata). Ameghiniana 50: 193–216.

Couette, S. and White, J. 2010. 3D geometric morphometrics and missing-data. Can extant taxa give clues for the analysis of fossil primates? Ameghiniana 9: 423–433.

Cuff , A.R. and Rayfield, E.J. 2015. Retrodeformation and muscular reconstruction of ornithomimosaurian dinosaur crania. PeerJ 3:e1093.

Davies, T.G., Rahman, I.A., Lautenschlager, S., Cunningham, J.A., Asher, R.J., Barrett, P.M., Bates, K.T., Bengtson, S., Benson, R.B.J., Boyer, D.M., Braga, J., Bright, J.A., Claessens, L.P.A.M., Cox, P.G., Dong, X.P., Evans, A.R., Falkingham, P.L., Friedman, M., Garwood, R.J., Goswami, A., Hutchinson, J.R., Jeffery, N.S., Johanson, Z., Lebrun, R., Martínez-Pérez, C., Marugán-Lobón, J., O'Higgins, P.M., Metscher, B., Orliac, M., Rowe, T.B., Rücklin, M., Sánchez-Villagra, M.R., Shubin, N.H., Smith, S.Y., Starck, J.N., Stringer, C., Summers, A.P., Sutton, M.D., Walsh, S.A., Weisbecker, V., Witmer, L.M., Wroe, S., Yin, Z., Rayfield, E.J. and Donoghue, P.C.J. 2017. Open data and digital morphology. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 284: 20170194.

Degrange, F.J., Tambussi, C.P., Moreno, K., Witmer, L.M. and Wroe, S. 2010. Mechanical Analysis of feeding behavior in the extinct “error Bird” Andalgalornis steulleti (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae). PLoS ONE 5: e11856.

Dominguez Alonso, P., Milner, A.C., Ketcham, R.A., Cookson, M.J. and Rowe, T.B. 2004. The avian nature of the brain and inner ear of Archaeopteryx. Nature 430: 666–669.

Eulitz, M. and Reiss, G. 2015. 3D reconstruction of SEM images by use of optical photogrammetry software. Journal of Structural Biology 191: 190–96.

Falkingham, P.L., Margetts, L., Smith, I.A. and Manning, P.L. 2009. Reinterpretation of palmate and semi-palmate (webbed) fossil tracks; insights from finite element modelling. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 271: 69–76.

Falkingham, P.L. 2012. Acquisition of high resolution three-dimensional models using free, open-source, photogrammetric software. Palaeontologia Electronica 15: 1T: 15p.

Falkingham, P.L. and Gatesy, S.M. 2014. The birth of a dinosaur footprint: Subsurface 3D motion reconstruction and discrete element simulation reveal track ontogeny. PNAS 111: 18279–18284.

Falkingham, P.L., Bates, K.T., Avanzini, M., Bennett, M., Bordy, E.M., Breithaupt, B.H., Castanera, D., Citton, P., Díaz-Martínez, I., Farlow, J.O., Fiorillo, A., Gatesy, S.M., Getty, P., Hatala, K.G., Hornung, J.J., Hyatt, J.A., Klein, H., Lallensack, J.N., Martin, A.J., Marty, D., Matthews, N.A., Meyer, C.A., Milàn, J., Minter, N.J., Razzolini, N.L., Romilio, A., Salisbury, S.W., Sciscio, L., Tanaka, I., Wiseman, A.L.A., Xing, L.D. and Belvedere, M. 2018. A standard protocol for documenting modern and fossil ichnological data. Palaeontology 61: 469–80.

Falkingham, P.L., Bates, K.T. and Farlow, J.O. 2014. Historical photogrammetry: Bird's Paluxy River Dinosaur Chase sequence digitally reconstructed as it was prior to excavation 70 Years Ago. PLoS ONE 9: e93247.

Gatesy, S.M., Bäker, M. and Hutchinson, J.R. 2009. Constraint-based exclusion of limb poses for reconstructing theropod dinosaur locomotion. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29: 535–544.

Hernesniemi, E., Blomstedt, K. and Fortelius, M. 2011. Multi-view stereo three-dimensional reconstruction of lower molars of recent and Pleistocene rhinoceroses for mesowear analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 14: 2T:15p.

Hutchinson, J.R. and García, M. 2002. Tyrannosaurus was not a fast runner. Nature 415: 1018–1021.

Hutchinson, J.R., Anderson, F.C., Blemker, S.S. and Delp, S.L. 2005. Analysis of hindlimb muscle moment arms in Tyrannosaurus rex using a three-dimensional musculoskeletal computer model: implications for stance, gait, and speed. Paleobiology, 31(4): 676–701.

Klein, H., Wizevich, M.C., Thüring, B., Marty, D., Thüring, S., Falkingham, P.L. and Meyer, C.A. 2016. Triassic chirotheriid footprints from the Swiss Alps: ichnotaxonomy and depositional environment (Cantons Wallis & Glarus). Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 135: 295–314.

Klinkhamer, A.J., Mallison, H., Poropat, S.F., Sinapius, G.H.K. and Wroe, S. 2018. Three-dimensional musculoskeletal modeling of the sauropodomorph hind limb: the effect of postural change on muscle leverage. The Anatomical Record 301: 2145–2163.

Klinkhamer, A.J., Mallison, H., Poropat, S.F., Sloan, T. and Wroe, S. 2018. Comparative three-dimensional moment arm analysis of the sauropod forelimb: implications for the transition to a wide-gauge stance in titanosaurs. The Anatomical Record 302: 794–817.

Knoll, F., Witmer, L.M., Ridgely, R.C., Ortega, F. and Sanz, J.L. 2015. A New Titanosaurian braincase from the Cretaceous “Lo Hueco” locality in Spain sheds light on neuroanatomical evolution within Titanosauria. PLoS ONE 10: e0138233.

Konietzko-Meier, D., Gruntmejer, K., Marcé-Nogué, J., Bodzioxh, A. and Fortuny, J. 2018. Merging cranial histology and 3D-computational biomechanics: a review of the feeding ecology of a Late Triassic temnospondyl amphibian. PeerJ 6: e4426.

Lallensack, J.N., Sander, P.M., Knötschke, N. and Wings, O. 2015. Dinosaur tracks from the Langenberg Quarry (Late Jurassic, Germany) reconstructed with historical photogrammetry: Evidence for large theropods soon after insular dwarfism. Palaeontologia Electronica 18: 1–34.

Lautenschlager, S., Brassey, C.A., Button, D.J. and Barrett, P.M. Decoupled form and function in disparate herbivorous dinosaur clades. Scientific Reports 6: 26495.

Maidment, S.C.R., Bates, K.T., Falkingham, P.L., VanBuren, C., Arbour, V. and Barrett, P.M. 2014. Locomotion in ornithischian dinosaurs: an assessment using three-dimensional computational modelling. Biological Reviews 89: 588–617.

Mallison, H. 2010. The digital Plateosaurus II: An assessment of the range of motion of the limbs and vertebral column and of previous reconstructions using a digital skeletal mount. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 55: 433–458.

Mallison, H. and Wings, O. 2014. Photogrammetry in paleontology - a practical guide. Journal of Paleontological Techniques 12: 1–31.

Matthews, N.A., Noble, T.A., and Breithaupt, B.H. 2006. The application of photogrammetry, remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) to fossil resource management. Bulletin New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science 34: 119–131.

Matthews, N.A., Noble, T. and Breithaupt, B.H. 2016. Close-range photogrammetry for 3-D Ichnology: the basics of photogrammetric ichnology. En: P.L. Falkingham, D. Marty and A. Richter (eds.), Dinosaur Tracks: The Next Steps, Indiana University Press: Bloomington.

Manning, P.L, Margetts, L., Johnson, M.R., Withers, P.J., Sellers, W.I., Falkingham, P.L., Mummery, P.M., Barrett, P.M. and Raymont, D.R. 2009. Biomechanics of dromaeosaurid inosaur claws: application of x-ray microtomography, nanoindentation, and finite element analysis. The Anatomical Record 292:1397–1405.

Milne, N.M., Vizcaíno, S.F. and Fernicola, J.C. 2009. A 3D geometric morphometric analysis of digging ability in the extant and fossil cingulate humerus. Journal of Zoology 278: 48–56.

Otero, A., Allen, V., Pol, D. and Hutchinson, J. R. 2017. Forelimb muscle and joint actions in Archosauria: insights from Crocodylus johnstoni (Pseudosuchia) and Mussaurus patagonicus (Sauropodomorpha). PeerJ 5: e3976.

Otero, A., Cuff, A.R., Allen, V, Sumner-Rooney, L., Pol, D. and Hutchinson, J.R.. 2019. Ontogenetic changes in the body plan of the sauropodomorph dinosaur Mussaurus patagonicus reveal shifts of locomotor stance during growth. Scientific Reports 9: 7614.

Schlüter, N. 2016. Ecophenotypic variation and developmental instability in the Late Cretaceous echinoid Micraster brevis (Irregularia; Spatangoida). PLoS ONE 11: e0148341.

Sellers, W.I., Pond, S.B., Brassey, C.A., Manning, P.L. and Bates, K.T. 2017. Investigating the running abilities of Tyrannosaurus rex using stress-constrained multibody dynamic analysis. PeerJ 5: e3420.

Sereno, P.C., Wilson, J.A., Witmer, L.M., Whitlock, J.A., Maga, A., Ide, O. and Rowe, T.A. 2007. Structural Extremes in a Cretaceous Dinosaur. PLoS ONE 2: e1230.

Sharp, A.C. 2014. Three dimensional digital reconstruction of the jaw adductor musculature of the extinct marsupial giant Diprotodon optatum. PeerJ 2: e514.

Stocker, M.R., Nesbitt, S.J., Criswell, K.E., Parker, W.G., Witmer, L.M., Rowe, T.B., Ridgely, R. and Brown, M.A. 2016. A dome-headed stem archosaur exemplifies convergence among dinosaurs and their distant relatives. Current Biology 26: 2674–2680.

Rayfeld, E.J., Norman, D.B., Horner, C.C., Horner, J.R., Smith, P.M., Thomason, J.J. and Upchurch, P. 2001. Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaur. Nature 409: 1033–1037.

Reiss, S. and Mallison, H. 2014. Motion range of the manus of Plateosaurus engelhardti von Meyer, 1837. Palaeontologia Electronica 17(1): 12A: 19p.

Vizcaíno, S.F. Cassini G.H., Fernicola, J.C. and Bargo, M.S. 2011. Evaluating habitats and feeding habits through ecomorphological features in glyptodonts (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Ameghiniana 48: 305–319.

Vizcaino, S.F., Bargo, M.S., Cassini, G.H. and Toledo, N. 2016. Forma y función en Paleobiología de Vertebrados EDULP, La Plata, 268 p.

White, M.A., Falkingham, P.L., Cook, A.G., Hocknull, S.A. and Elliott, D.A. 2013. Morphological comparisons of metacarpal I for Australovenator wintonensis and Rapator ornitholestoides: implications for their taxonomic relationships. Alcheringa 37: 435–41.

White, M.A., Bell, P.R., Cook, A.G., Barnes, D.G., Tischler, T.R., Bassam, B.J. and Elliott, D.A. 2015. Forearm Range of Motion in Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda, Megaraptoridae). PLoS ONE 10(9): e0137709.

Wilhite, D.R. 2003. [Biomechanical reconstruction of the appendicular skeleton in three North American Jurassic Sauropods]. Tesis Doctoral, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge,185 p. Inédita.

Wilhite, D.R. 2005. Variation in the appendicular skeleton of North American sauropod dinosaurs: taxonomic implications. En: V. Tidwell and K. Carpenter (Eds.), Thunder lizards: the sauropodomorph dinosaurs. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, p. 268–302.

Witmer, L.M. 2004. Inside the oldest bird brain. Nature 430: 619–620.

Xing, L., Li, D., Falkingham, P.L., Lockley, M.G., Benton, M.J., Klein, H., Zhang, J., Ran, H., Persons, S. and Dai H. 2016. Digit-only sauropod pes trackways from China - evidence of swimming or a preservational phenomenon? Scientific Reports 6: 21138.

Young, M.T. Rayfield, E.J., Holliday, C.M., Witmer, L.M., Button, D.J., Upchurch, P. and Barrett, P.M. 2012. Cranial biomechanics of Diplodocus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda): testing hypotheses of feeding behavior in an extinct megaherbivore. Naturwissenschaften 99: 637–643.
Sección
Artículos
Derechos de autor
Creative Commons License
Esta obra está bajo licencia internacional Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0.

Los autores conservan los derechos de autor y garantizan a la revista el derecho de ser la primera publicación del trabajo licenciado bajo una licencia CC Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 que permite a otros compartir el trabajo con el reconocimiento de la autoría y de la publicación inicial en esta revista.